DNA from the Beginning is brought to you by:

James D. Watson
Chancellor Emeritus, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
David A. Micklos
Executive Editor
Jan Witkowski
Scientific Editor
Susan M. Lauter
Design Director
Chun-hua Yang
Cornel Ghiban
Eun-sook Jeong
Christian Weidler
Junior Designer
Anthony Biondo
Junior Programmer

Previous Contributors:

Shirley Chan
Writer/Managing Editor
Susan Conova
Matthew Christensen
Mark Feingold, Gisella Walter
John Kruper
Managing Editor
Kim Bronson, Lynne Cannon Menges
Copy Editors
Josh Cohen, Maria Gililova, Ryan Luce, Sheila Vyas, Felix Hu, Tracy Mak


Unless stated otherwise, all material appearing on this web site is: Copyright 2002, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. The images and content in DNA from the Beginning are for educational use only. Material may be used in reports, research, and other noncommercial projects provided that proper attribution with the copyright notice accompany the material. An acceptable copyright notice is as follows: Copyright, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. All rights reserved. Material in DNA from the Beginning may not be used in any form by organizations or commercial concerns, except with express permission.

All material appearing on this web site and not generated by the DNA Learning Center is accompanied by its own disclaimer and copyright notice. Permission for reuse of such material must be obtained from the source.


We wish to thank Dr. James D. Watson, Chancellor Emeritus, Cold Spring Harbor Research Laboratory, Dr. June Osborn, President (1996-2007), The Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, and Mr. David L. Luke III, Honorary Trustee, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Each made significant contributions to the content and philosophical presentation of the material in DNA from the Beginning. We acknowledge the generous support of The Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, which funds this project.

We are grateful to the following individuals, archives and institutions for their cooperation and their contributions to this project: G. Allen; M. Ambrose; R. Baker; S. Benzer; M. Bishop; R. Britten; P. Brown; C. Bunce; L. Burgoyne; M. Capecchi; E. Carlson; T. Cech; S. Cohen; F. Collins; R. Dahm; J. Darnell; I. Dawid; M. de la Bastide; B. Hamkalo; D. Hanahan; L. Hartwell; M. Hengartner; D. Hewish; M. Hoagland; R. Horvitz; T. Howard; K. Hulett; A. Kornberg; R. Kornberg; U. Laemmli; J. Lederberg; S. Lowe; M. McCarty; M. Meselson; S. Mak; A. McBrien; R. McCombie; S. Miller; J. Moore; L. Moran; K. Nagashima; P. Nestler; M. Nirenberg; R. Olby; L. Oswald; S. Paabo; S. Paddock; K. Phelan; R. Roberts; C.S. Rupert; F. Sanger; T. Sargent; B. Sauer; B. Schermetzler; J. Setlow; R. Setlow; P. Sharp; P. Sherwood; D. Spector; F. Stahl; Y. Tsukii; R. Turner; J. Van Etten; H. Varmus; C. Venter; K. Walsh; J. West; E. Wieschaus; M. Wigler; P. Zamecnik; American Philosophical Society; American Society of Zoology; Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie Archives; California Institute of Technology; Carnegie Institute of Washington; Cells Alive!; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Archives; Eli Lilly; Howard Hughes Medical Institute; John Innes Foundation; Library of Congress; The Lilly Library, Marine Biological Laboratory; National Human Genome Research Institute; National Library of Medicine; NGHRI; PD Images; Rockefeller Archive Center; Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Stanford University Archives; Time Life Syndication; University of Chicago News Service; University of Colorado; University of Wisconsin-Madison Archives; Visual Image Presentations; Visuals Unlimited; Wellcome Trust; Yale University Office of Public Affairs.

We also wish to thank our Board of Reviewers for their thoughtful insights and comments: Dr. Elof Carlson, SUNY Stony Brook, New York; Mr. Joe Cassar, A. Philip Randolph High School, New York; Mr. Elmer Kellman, Parkway Central High School, Missouri; Dr. Herb LeJohn, University of Manitoba; Ms. Carolyn Martin, Many High School, Louisiana; Dr. Bob McKown, James Madison University, Virginia; Dr. John Rebers, Northern Michigan University; Dr. Frank Stahl, University of Oregon; Ms. Janet Wise, Columbus High School, Mississippi.